- Subjective: own experience, how we see something
- Objective: fact, things to be discover
- Who am I? different roles act in different ways (e.g. daughter, sister, partner, lecturer, researcher)
What possibilities are open to us?
- Who we are and how we act is always contingent on other things
- act in different ways according to different roles and subject to different expectations, conventions, behaviours
What outside forces act upon us to shape us?
- Consider how institutions shape us into certain subject positions
- How are these enforced?
- How are they complicated?
- How do they change?
- Husband/ Wife
- Tax payer
Some of the biggies…
- Most discussed aspects: race, gender, sexuality and class
- so much of the understanding and negotiations areas is through specific social engagements and institutionalised understandings
- We are subject to certain implications or understandings of self
- White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack by Peggy McIntosh
“I was taught to see racism only in individual acts of meanness, not in invisible systems conferring dominance on my group”
- The male gaze
- Sexual imbalance
- women are simultaneously looked at and displayed → connote to-be-looked-at-ness
- “Woman displayed as sexual object is the leit-motif of erotic spectacle: from pin-ups to strip- tease, from Ziegfeld to Busby Berkeley, she holds the look, plays to and signifies male desire.” (Mulvey 1975)
- “Male characters are stereotypically hypermasculine and female characters are hypersexualized” (Pulos 2013: 79)
- Biological sexuality is only a precondition
- Works on the basis of fixed, binary gender positions
- Fixed “roles” – masculinity and femininity
- Assumes that heterosexuality is the “norm”
- Categorising social groups according to hierarchies of wealth, occupation, taste and culture
- Lower class → lower level of expectation/ taste
- Class in education → public school: free/ private school: nice but have to pay
- “Virtual” worlds are only virtual in a limited sense; real-world issues can and do impinge on the fantasy landscape of games such as WoW” (Anderson 2006 quoted in Pulos 2013)
- “Digital worlds do not have to adhere to any specific formula or organization, and yet ideological constraints have seeped into its very existence and frameworks.” (Pulos 2013: 78-79)